University of Mumbai
Centre for Extra-Mural Studies

Language : English

Duration : 1 year

On Sundays only

Time : 10 AM to 1 PM

Fee : 10000/-

Commencing from July 2023

Venue : Health Centre Bldg, Vidyanagari, University of Mumbai, Mumbai - 400 098.



Introduction :

Taxonomy and Systematic Botany

Taxonomy and its Significance. Opportunities offered by Taxonomy

Its dependence on other branches of Botany such as Morphology, Anatomy, Embryology, Cytology, Ecology and Palaeobotany.

Principles of Taxonomy :-
Classification :-Categories : i) Major ii) Minor iii) Intraspecific

History of Classification : Periods :(a) Classification based on Habits (Morphology)(b) Classification based on Number (Artificial)(c) Classification based on Relationships (Natural)(d) Classification based on Phylogeny (Evolution)

Systems of Classification :(a) Old :- Theophrastus, Aristotle, Lamarck etc. (b) General Classification of Plant Kingdom: Vedic reference, Chinese, Egyptian , Assyrian Aztecs etc.(c) New:- Bentham and Hooker, Engler & Prantl, Rendle, Bessey, Hutchinson, Takhtajian, Cronquist.


Rules of Nomenclature (a) Vedic period (b) Western old period

Knowledge of International code of Botanical nomenclature:Paris Code, Rochester Code, Vienna Code, American Code and present ones.

PLANT IDENTIFICATION : METHODS:(a) Pre-identified material for comparison (b) Herbarium and its techniques (c) Literature and Botanical Gardens


PRACTICAL STUDIES :Families of Flowering plants :- Available in and around Mumbai. (Angiosperms and Gymnosperms) and Floral Formulae.Families of Non-flowering plants - Algae, Fungi, Lichens, Bryophytes and Pteridophytes. PLANT BIODIVERISTY AND PHYTOGEOGRAPHY :(a) Significance of Biodiversity (b) Importance of Biodiversity(c) Reasons for loss of Biodiversity(d) Conservation practices :- in situ conservation, ex situ conservation, Gene Banks.(e) Experimental taxonomy & Biosystematics (f) Genetic bar code for every plant species :- To develop DNA bar coding as scientific tool for confirming identification of species and to put that tool to work for both Science and Society.

FIELD WORK AND PROJECTS : Type of Projects :(a) Creative projects eg. Charts, Models etc.(b) Collection projects eg. Information regarding Herbaria, Botanic Gardens, Scientists (connected with Taxonomic work).(c) Survey project : eg. Survey of plants of a given area.(d) Research type of projects : Topics related to helping in identification and classification of Plants (Trichomes, Pollen, seed germination, Leaf Structure) (a) Preparation of material depicting morphological parameters such as Leaf forms, Canopy shapes, Basic bark pattern by impression techniques and photographs.



BBC Film. David Attenborough (Plant & Animal Science)

Biology: An Environmental Approach : Diversity Among Living things John Murray, Albemarle Street, London.

National Geographic Films.


- Evolution & Phylogeny
- Origin of Species & the Geological Time Scale

The Principles of Classification

a) Purpose of Classification

b) Significance of Taxonomy & Opportunities offered

c) History of Classification

d) Basics of Animal Classification- Number of Animal species (Comparative Analysis)- Population, Genera, species- Homology and Analogy - Similarity in origin and similarity in use.- Types of Symmetry and the Axes, planes and region in animal bodiese)

e) Different concepts of classification based on: - Morphology, Anatomy, Genetics, Molecular, Behaviour

f) Phylogeny and Taxonomy- Cladistic (Phylogenetic) Systematics- Phenetic Systematics

g) Rules of Nomenclature: Procedure of Naming an animal- Common or Regional names- Scientific names

h) Bio-geography (Zoogeography) - Realms, Distributions, Migrations

i) Important Animal Taxonomists/Evolutionary Biologists: Charles Darwin, Gregor Mendel, Smith (Fauna of British India), Boulanger, Alfred Russell Wallace, Carl Linnaeus (?), Russel, et al.

j) Life Cycles of select animals

k) Life History Strategies

l) Taxidermy, Collection & Animal Preservation

m) Dissection for Taxonomic Identification

n) Chemotaxonomy

o) Familiarisation & Use of Keys for identification

General Characteristics

a) General Chart of Classification

b) General Characteristics of all Phyla in Evolutionary Hierarchy- Palaeozoology (Evolutionary aspect)- Protozoa, Metazoa, Parazoa- Incomplete & Complete Digestive Tract
- Number of germ layers- Coelom: Types, Haemocoel & Pseudocoel- Chordata, Non-Chordata
- Segmentation- Appendages & Locomotion- Selection
- Sex & Embryonic Development, Larvae- Behaviour

Classification of Animals

a) Phylum Protozoa

b) Phylum Porifera

c) Phylum Coelenterata

d) Phylum Platyhelminthes

e) Phylum Nematoda

f) Miscellaneous Phyla

g) Phylum Annelida

h) Phylum ArthropodaClass Insecta - BeetlesAnts Butterflies & Moths Class Arachnida - ScorpionsSpiders

i) Phylum Mollusca

j) Phylum Echinodermata

k) Phylum Chordata (Lower Chordates)

l) Class Cyclostomata

m) Class Chondrichthyes

n) Class Osteicthyes

o) Class Amphibia

p) Class Reptilia- Geckos, Lizards, Tortoises & Turtles- Snakes

q) Class Aves-Warblers/Birds of Prey

r) Class Mammalia-Bats

The meaning of the scientific terms to be provided, wherever possible.Behavioural pattern of at least few animals to be explained.

Systematics & Modern Biology

- Cloning, Hybridisation, Forensics

- DNA Fingerprinting, Chromatography (Bile Acids)

- In vitro Fertilisation & Gene Banks (Cryogenics)

Conservation & Taxonomy

- Protected Area Network

- Endangered & Extinct Species (IUCN Red list)

- Trade (Skin, Fur, Bones) & Consumption of Wild Animals Classwork

- Some simple Exercises in Taxonomy

Note: Number of hours shown will be common for the theory and practicals.